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History



 Briefly 

History of Labrador comes from the early 19th century. At this time in Newfoundland there was a so-called "small Newfoundland," which was a faithful assistant to fishermen. Englishman Peter Hawker has delivered to the UK several of these individuals, whom he called «St. John's Breed of Newfoundland ». From crossing these dogs with retriever Curly and possibly setter and the Foxhound, Labrador appeared. 

The first breed standard set in 1887. In 1903 the British Kennel Klub have been recognized only black labradors, but at the end of XX century another acceptable color was yellow, and later - chocolate. 

In the former USSR, the first Labrador appeared in the late 60s - early 70s. The 20th century. 


 In detail
Provenance Labrador is not entirely clear. There are many versions of folk tales and legends about the origin of this breed. For example, the legend of a romantic "love" dogs, and otters, "which appeared as a result of a dog with a waterproof, tough hair, round tail and a huge passion for the water. Of course, this is nothing more than a myth. Fortunately, there are many eyewitness accounts, confirming that the roots of rock are in Newfoundland. These data refer to the 19th century, and describe in detail the St. John's dog, holding a clear distinction between large and smaller Newfoundland dogs. 

We try to consider the basic version related to the origin of the breed.

It is believed that the first ancestor of the Labrador dog seen in the work of the sailors Newfoundland. Then the dogs were called in small Newfoundland dog, or dogs, Saint John (Saint John). While on the island bred two types of dogs, big massive gustosherstnyh (nyufaundlendery), from which came the modern Newfoundland, and the smaller, less powerful, on which are thought to be present and there was a Labrador. 

The relationship between the two types of dog St. John's (and, in the XIX century, some experts are not numbered two, but four of these species) are also not quite clear: we do not know the chronology of their appearance, as well as their degree of kinship. 

With great confidence we can say that Labradors were brought to England from the island of Newfoundland, but that's where did the ancestors of dogs St. John's - less than clear. Consider the basic version. 


A. Labradors are the descendants of the dogs water, the sailors brought from Portugal to the island of Newfoundland. By the way, the exact origin of themselves Portuguese water dogs are also known. According to one version, they were in Portugal from Central Europe around the V century, on the other - they brought with them from North African Moors in the VIII century. In the XIV-XV centuries the Portuguese, intending to fish the shores of Newfoundland, took these dogs with a polzovatelnyh sail. In the "Book of the Dog" (edited by Brian Fitzgerald, Vezey, Nicholson and S.Uotson, 1948) Clifford Hubbard writes: "In the beginning of the XIV century the Portuguese had a special breed of dogs that are bred and trained for by the fishermen. In the Middle Ages, these dogs have been distributed around the coast of Portugal, and were famous for their remarkable ability to swim ... There is almost no doubt that the big ships of the Great Armada, sailed from Lisbon, May 18, 1558 (ie more than half of the fleet of Portugal), Portuguese Water Dogs were, specially trained for rescue work at sea ... Their work is unique. They have been used as retrievers, podnosyaschie vyprygnuvshuyu of fish nets and washed out over the side gear and rigging. Popularity of Portuguese water dogs were so high that sailors, retired, sold them to everyone in areas where there was virtually no dogs. At night they guarded the boats and nets, and proved to be quite serious watchdogs ... ". 

Either way, the functions performed by the Portuguese water dogs are similar to those tasks that faced the St. John's dog: pulling nets and boats from the water, diving for fish had escaped, pulling out everything that fell into the water, including the drowning people. Yes, and by temperament, and some exterior features between these two species is observed similarities. 

Two. Ancestors of St. John's dogs were dog Indians of North America. However, this theory seems unlikely, since, according to archaeological studies, these dogs were Spitz-like type with small ears, a curved back tail, wedge-shaped head and pointed muzzle. 

Three. Ancestors dog St. John's Newfoundland and Labrador to the island brought the Vikings. There is a theory that the formation of rocks in Newfoundland dogs took part in the ancient Scandinavians, who arrived there for a thousand years before our era, and the Basque dogs that lived on the peninsula of Labrador in the 1500s to 1700s. However, this version seems unlikely as the majority of researchers. 
It is possible that all these theories are right, each in its own way. The fact that in the XVI century, the major naval powers engaged in development of the New World. In America fell a great many ships from various countries in Europe, and the boats were often the dogs that accompanied the sailors. Probably, these dogs interbred with local dogs, resulting in the St. John's dog. 

Mystery titles 
The name of the breed is made up of two words - Labrador Retriever (born retriever - hunting (search), a dog, to retrieve - retrieve (game - the dog), bear hunter game).Labrador retriever - a dog, seek out and brings the hunter game. If our current associates who live in apartments, we bring slippers, newspapers and balls, their ancestors were the real hunters, staying or bring their owners to pheasants, ducks and other fowl. 

But the first part of the breed's name is not so straightforward, there are several versions of its origin. It is not clear why the dog was called Labrador when she came to Europe from the island of Newfoundland. Some confusion with the names introduced by the fact that dogs of St. John's Newfoundland, and called alternately as a large and a smaller breed. Some sources indicate that the term "Labrador" is also used in relation to the dog at St. John's, especially in the second half of the XIX century. 
The first Labradors were exclusively black in color recalling the stone "labradorite".Perhaps in honor of this stone and Labrador got its name. 
According to the second version of the ancestors were bred Labrador Peninsula Labrador. 

The third assumption: Labrador first saw the Portuguese and affected by their amazing capacity for work, call them labradors (labrador), which in Portuguese means "worker." 

And finally, the fourth version. M.Hopkinson writes that after the dog of St. John in England "it was renamed in Labrador, although what exactly caused it - is unknown."To this also indicates B.Dyuk: "Counts of Second and Third Malmsbari famous because the dogs were brought to the United Kingdom St. John's, which at that time was sometimes called the small Newfoundland. It is known that the graph Malmsbari third changed its name to the Labrador Retriever. " 

English aristocrat 
Writes in his book M.Hopkinson (Marion Hopkinson, «Rocheby»): «Mobile Abilities, a dog with thick fur to work on the land, helping to haul timber and pull the heavy fish net, as well as the ability to search for the universal production fell in the icy water, were highly appreciated, and this dog was considered useful to the employee. As people from trading schooners and fishing boats have seen it, the dogs were brought to the United Kingdom. " 

Dogs of St. John's earned a reputation as a great ability to find and apportirovat game, which ensured them success and patronage of the wealthy and influential families in England - the wealthy landowners and noble families. 
According to literary sources Count Malmsbari (Malmesburry), Duke Buckley (Baccleuch) and other influential people of that time imported Labradors in England.Counts were bred them, maintaining the purity of the line from the first Labrador was brought to the pool (Pool). Count Malmsbari third (1807-1889) wrote: "I'm doing everything possible to preserve the breed in the same excellent condition in which it was brought to the UK. The dog of this breed distinguishes dense coat, which, as it were lubricated with oil, and therefore almost does not get wet, and especially the tail, otter-like tail. " 

With what was due the development of the breed in England? Around 1880, trade with Newfoundland was considerably reduced, the import of dogs in England virtually stopped. In 1885 the UK was issued a new "Law on the Quarantine", which any dog brought to the UK, could be transferred to the owner only after a six-month quarantine. It is virtually halted imports of Labradors in England. In this connection, breeders of that time were forced to work with dogs, available anywhere in their presence. 
H.Uayls-Fonds (Heather Wiles-Fone, «Heatherbourne») in his book "Labrador Retriever" writes: "One can assume that most of today's purebred Labradors date back their ancestry to the dogs, who lived in a well-known estates, and Buckley (Buccleuch), and other landowners maintain the purity of the breed. However, this is true is the fact that occasional use in breeding Labrador dogs of other breeds. " 

In the UK, more and more aristocratic families was assessed rock. In his book Spark "Labrador Retriever" is the remark of Lord D.Skota that dukes and earls Home Buckley kept labradors, but in the second half of the XIX century, the breed almost became extinct, remaining only a few estates in the South Coast of England. Lord Scott described the revival of the breed: "Lord Dalkeyt, the sixth Duke of Buckley and twelfth Earl of Home (Home) spent several winters in Bormunte in the early 1880's on the hunt. They were amazed by the work of Count Malmsbari dogs, especially in the water. Malmsbari Lord gave both dogs a few lords. " It is believed that this time, Labradors are very slow to spread across the great houses of Britain. According H.Uayls-Von: "What is particularly significant, the breed spread only because of its remarkable qualities of the workers. Labradors, we can say lucky, because they acquire a rich and influential people who are not making money on breeding dogs.Such circumstances allowed the breed to develop peacefully and in good hands. " 

In the last quarter of XIX century to the hunting and trade shows were very popular Flat Coated Retriever. Labrador for some time remained on the sidelines. H.Uayls-background indicates three reasons, the situation changed for the better Labradors: "One - it is still uncertain, but surely emerging field trial dogs, the second - the growing popularity of dog shows and a third, perhaps most significant - is that thanks to the efforts Honourable A.Hollanda Hiebert-Labrador in 1903 were recognized Kennel club as a separate breed. " Gradually it became clear that Labradors are very good on field tests, the hunters are increasingly choosing labrador retrievers as (apportirovschikov game). Recognition of the July 7, 1907 as a breed Labradors Kennel club has given them the opportunity to participate in exhibitions. And when at shows a lot of Labradors, the comparison is greatly facilitated. 

A group of influential people in England decided to organize a club for the protection and promotion of the breed. In 1916 the Club was founded Labrador retriever, became its chairman A.Holland-Hiebert, Lord Knutsford (Knutsford). In this position he was before his death in 1935 became secretary and treasurer, Mrs. Kuintin Dick, Countess Howe (Lorna, Countess of How, «Banchory»), who was in office for 45 years. Countess Howe and her nursery done much to preserve and develop the breed. It was amazingly successful kennel dog, as in working trials, and in their offspring. The club was the center of the breed, and organized field trials followed the well-being of rangers, represented the interests of the breed in Dog Training Club, set up a committee to write standards for the breed Labrador Retriever (later, these standards were adopted by Kennel club). 

The next step in the life of the breed was the recognition of a yellow color. Originally born in litters of puppies of various colors, but most breeders felt that the Labrador Retriever - black dog with "some white spots on the right places." The fate of another color puppy was unenviable ... The yellow color began to spread from the first family Radcliffe registered labrador Ben of Hyde. In 1924 Veronica Uormlend together with other enthusiasts club was formed yellow Labrador, whose main objective was to provide an enabling environment for the display of such dogs at shows and trials. 
H.Uayls-Von says: "Chocolate color has undergone the same resistance and doubt, but the impetus for its development has also become a famous victory at the dog shows of the 1970s - Champion Foolytower Merrybrook Black Stormer chocolate color. Starting with him, chocolate labradors are rapidly progressing. " 

Thanks to the wise decision of the Club labrador retrievers on the resolution of mating dogs of different colors of Labrador breeders avoid narrowing the range of breeding because of the closure within the same species as the more important elements of the selection work is still a type, health and quality of working Labradors. 

Labrador in the modern world 
After the Second World War, when life has gradually become adjusted, there were people time and money for a variety of hobbies. One of these hobbies was breeding purebred dogs. Labs were open society not only as a hunter, but also as an excellent family dog. 

Inscribed in golden letters in the history of the breed of an amazing woman - Labrador breeder Gwen Broudli (Sandylands), who devoted 67 years old Labrador. Gwen Broudli helped popularize the breed on all continents. She raised a lot of first-class dogs, the largest of its success is the legendary dog Sandylands Mark (born in 1965).Experts say that it was a great producer, who had a decisive influence on the breed, no other dog has not done much to develop the breed Labrador. 

The development of the breed in Russia began in the late 1960s, the Indian female Labrador. At that time the USSR the breed was virtually unknown. Then there were the gifts L.Brezhnevu from President Jimmy Carter (Labrador Fishduck Kennebago Raider) and the Canadian writer Farley Mowat, a naturalist (Labrador Red Star), as well as import more and more dogs from England and other countries. Over the years, Russian breeders of Labrador did a great job, as a result of which reached a very high quality dogs and the breed is gaining in popularity. 

In Ukraine, the first Labradors began in the early 1990s. The first dogs were imported from Russia. Now the breed is growing rapidly in Ukraine, is actively imported dogs from Russia, Czech Republic, England, Finland, Portugal and Poland. 


 Chronology 

1800-1810: England first brought dogs from St. Johns. 

1814: the book "Manual for Young Athletes" was first officially mentioned Labrador retriever. 

1823: Edward Lendzir artist depicts one of the first ancestors of Labrador in the painting titled "The bark, Labrador bitch." Note that in this host Bark in color are white speckled, which will get rid of in the process of selection. 

1835: Scotland begins to act first nursery specializing in breeding Labradors, owned by the fifth Duke of Bakkleuchskomu. 

1870: The name "Labrador" is no longer a rarity, as these black dogs, who sought and have submitted a dead game, began to actively use the huntsman. 

1885: in the UK introduced a mandatory six-month quarantine for all imported dogs. 

1892: Duke Bakkleuchskogo in the nursery in one of the litters of black parents are born two yellow puppy. 

1899: Britain's official registration in the first yellow puppy named Ben Hyde office of the kennel of Major CJ Radcliffe. 
1903: July 7, the Kennel Club officially recognized the Labrador Retriever and 3 November include it in the group podruzheynyh dogs. 

1905: in January, finally approved its own exhibition Labrador classes, different from those of other classes of retrievers. 

1911: opening of the Retriever Club in France. 

1912: the number of puppies of Labrador, Kennel Club registered, passed for 200. 

1916: thanks to the efforts of the two pioneer breeders - Lorna Countess Howe, who became famous for its black labradors from the kennel "Benchori," and Lord Knutsford, created in the kennel "Mandaeans" line Labradors, presented in the pedigrees of all modern Labradors - created the current "elder" Clubs - Club Labrador Retriever (The Labrador Retriever Club). 

1917: twenty years after the onset of Labradors in the U.S. The American Kennel Club registers in its stud book first "official" litter. 

1922: British breeders registered 916 puppies. 

1923: The Honourable A. Holland Hiebert (later Lord Knutsford) publishes an article clarifying the standard, adopted in 1916 

1925: creation of Club Yellow Labrador Retriever. 

1931: creation of Labrador Retriever Club of the United States (The Labrador Retriever Club Incorporation). 

1932 and 1933, two years in a row a black Labrador Bremshou Bob Champion Wins Best in Show at the exhibition Kraft. 
1959: The revival of interest in Labrador in the United States in connection with the issuance of a postage stamp with his image (on the stamp was imprinted black labrador King Buck). 

1988: British breeders shocked by the murder of prominent breeder Joan Meken, who devoted more than 50 years of his life breeding Labradors (kennel "Timspring"). 

1989: The Labrador Retriever is the most popular breed in England as well - 26 392 registered in the stud book of the Kennel Club. 

1991: The Labrador Retriever is a leader in the U.S. ranking of breeds. This is the place he retains to this day. 
1998: Record of England: the number of registered births for the year up to 36,000 labradors. 

1999: The dog breeders all over the world learn of the death of Gwen Broadley, the founder of modern plant breeding Labradors (kennel "Sendilends"). The line of the nursery continues to be successful, in particular, thanks to Eric Hayes, bred several champions. 

2003: The Labrador Retriever Club celebrates a century of breed in a luxurious mansion in the Castle-Belvoyr Grenteme, where the two-day anniversary exhibition, attended by about 1,000 dogs! 


Materials are used: 
"Labrador Retriever" H.Uayls-von Jannet and J. Churchill 
zoobusiness.kiev.ua 
labrador.ru

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